Search results: 1,739 results (approx.)

1. Effect of mash, pellet, and extrude diet form on ascetic gene expression (HIF-1α mRNA) and heart index in broiler chicken.

The current study was conducted to determine the effect of the feed form (mash, pellet, and extrude) on Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α mRNA) and heart index in broiler chickens. The relative weight of hearts and lungs, the ratio of Right Ventricle heart weight to the Total Ventricle weight...

Author(s) : Azizian, M.; Saki, A. A.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2021 Vol.23 No.1 pp.17-25 ref.35

2. Enhancing the quality of fresh pistachio fruit using sodium alginate enriched with thyme essential oil <./article-23-32967-en.pdf >.

The combined coating-effects of Sodium Alginate (SA) and Thyme Essential Oil (TEO) was investigated at three levels of, respectively, (0.0, 1.0, and 1.5%) and (0.0, 0.3, and 0.5%) on fresh pistachio during 6 weeks of cold (3±1°C) storage. Physiochemical parameters (hull and hard-shell color, hull...

Author(s) : Shakerardekani, A.; Hashemi, M.; Shahedi, M.; Dastjerdi, A. M.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2021 Vol.23 No.1 pp.65-82 ref.49

3. Quality characteristics of goat yogurt containing Lactobacillus probiotic bacteria.

This research aimed to analyze the influence of probiotic bacteria on the microbiological, physico-chemical, technological, and sensory characteristics of goat yogurt during 28 days of refrigerated storage. Results revealed that the incorporation of two probiotic bacteria did not significantly...

Author(s) : Mahmoudi; Telmoudi, A.; Moussa, O. B.; Chouaibi, M.; Hassouna, M.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2021 Vol.23 No.1 pp.83-96 ref.40

4. Canopy based aboveground biomass and carbon stock estimation of wild pistachio trees in arid woodlands using GeoEye-1 images.

Spatially explicit estimates of aboveground biomass over large area are necessary for natural resources managers. This study examined aboveground biomass and carbon stock of the wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica) based on individual tree crown detection and allometric development in the arid...

Author(s) : Bagheri, R.; Jouibary, S. S.; Erfanifard, Y.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2021 Vol.23 No.1 pp.107-123 ref.52

5. The crucial role of the endosymbiont Pantoea sp. in morphology and mating of the pistachio green stink bug, Brachynema germari (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

The pistachio green stink bug, Brachynema germari Kolenati (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is one of the most important pests of pistachio nuts in many pistachio-growing regions in Iran(Mehrnejad 2001; Bigham & Hosseininaveh 2010). This insect harbors a gammaproteobacterial symbiont, related to the...

Author(s) : Kashkouli, M.; Fathipour, Y.; Mehrabadi, M.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2021 Vol.23 No.1 pp.137-148 ref.41

6. Forage yield and quality evaluation in intercropping of Kochia, Sesbania and Guar under saline irrigation.

Salinity is one of the most important factors limiting plants growth and production in irrigated agriculture. The natural potential of salt tolerant plants like Kochia could be exploited through legume-containing intercropping systems as an effective strategy in mitigating the increasing salinity...

Author(s) : Ghaffarian, M. R.; Yadavi, A.; Nasab, A. D. M.; Salehi, M.; Dehnavi, M. M.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2021 Vol.23 No.1 pp.149-165 ref.54

7. Fatty acids, tocopherol and phenolic contents of organic and conventional grown hazelnuts.

The aim of this study was to determine the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity as well as fatty acids and tocopherol compositions of organic and conventionally grown hazelnut (Corylus avellana). Organic hazelnuts were found to be richer in terms of palmitoleic acid (P< 0.05). The...

Author(s) : Karaosmanoglu, H.; Ustun, N. S.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2021 Vol.23 No.1 pp.167-177 ref.43

8. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the essential oil of origanum vulgare ssp. gracile as affected by different harvesting times <./article-23-37950-en.pdf >.

Qualitative and quantitative variations in the essential oil of wild growing Origanum vulgare L. ssp. gracile plants were studied in response to different phenological stages (pre, full and post-flowering). The essential oil of air-dried leaves was isolated by water distillation using a...

Author(s) : Moradi, M.; Hassani, A.; Sefidkon, F.; Maroofi, H.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2021 Vol.23 No.1 pp.179-186 ref.37

9. Virulence and mating type distribution of Didymella rabiei in chickpea growing areas of Turkey.

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a traditional crop species in Turkey that is cultivated in almost every province providing prominent economic income. Turkey has an important resource for both Cicer spp diversity and their phytopathogens like ascohyta blight caused by Didymella rabiei (Kovachevski) ...

Author(s) : Nalcaci, N.; Turan, A.; Basbuga, S.; Kafadar, F. N.; Isler Ceyhan, D.; Anay, A.; Mart, D.; Ogut, E.; Sarpkaya, K.; Can, C.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2021 Vol.23 No.1 pp.209-220 ref.33

10. Evaluation of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system models in estimating saffron yield using meteorological data <./article-23-14716-en.pdf >.

Saffron is one of the most valuable agricultural and medicinal plants of the world and has a special place in Iranchr('39')s export of products. Presently, Iran is the worldchr('39')s largest producer and exporter of saffron and more than 93/7% of the world production belongs to Iran. However,...

Author(s) : Nekoei, N.; Bedani, M. A.; Siuki, A. K.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2021 Vol.23 No.1 pp.221-234 ref.26

11. Economic valuation of ecosystem conservation using dichotomous choice approach (case study: Khabar National Park).

The development of economic valuation techniques and their potential applications to environmental assessment have important role in environmental economics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the conservation value of the Khabr National Park in Iran and people's willingness to pay for...

Author(s) : Saleh, I.; Khosravi, M.; Boshrabadi, A. S.; Rafiee, H.; Shahnabati, N.; Saleh, H. R.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1165-1175 ref.34

12. Analyzing Iranian farmers' behavioral intention towards acceptance of drip irrigation using extended technology acceptance model.

The present study aimed to analyze sugar beet farmers' intention towards the acceptance of drip irrigation based on an extended version of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The main objectives of this study were introduction of the existing acceptance behavior models, comparison of these theories...

Author(s) : Haji, L.; Valizadeh, N.; Rezaei-Moghaddam, K.; Hayati, D.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1177-1190 ref.34

13. Developing indicators for farmers' satisfaction with extension services in Iran utilizing Delphi technique.

The lack of accountability of government organizations to address the needs of stakeholders and the private sector and the provision of low-quality services to clients has increased dissatisfaction with government services. Therefore, providing quality services is essential to increase satisfaction ...

Author(s) : Zare, A.; Chizari, M.; Sadighi, H.; Choobchian, Sh.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1191-1204 ref.48

14. Understanding rural people's engagement in pro-environmental behaviors: an integrated conceptual framework.

Undoubtedly, investigation and recognition of individuals' environmental behaviors are key prerequisites to resolve environmental problems, but empirical theory-based research on this topic is limited, particularly in developing countries. Accordingly, a mixed model based on the Theory of Planned...

Author(s) : Safa, L.; Saghinsara, V. M.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1205-1217 ref.42

15. A novel approach to establish breed type and standards for an equine breed: Persian Kurdish horse.

Persian Kurdish Horse constitutes a group of horses traditionally bred and used by Kurdish People who have lived and occupied today's western provinces of Iran for several millennia. Although very well-known for their unique characteristics, standards of this socalled breed of Iranian native horses ...

Author(s) : Mashouf, N. Y.; Yeganeh, H. M.; Javaremi, A. N.; Maloufi, F.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1219-1233 ref.19

16. Antimicrobial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and its effect on microbiological properties of yoghurt.

In this study, the antimicrobial effect of Coriandrum sativum L. leaves against 30 different foodborne microorganisms, including 20 bacteria, 7 fungi and, 3 yeast species, and some microbiological properties of yoghurt produced with lyophilised Coriandrum sativum L. at three different level (0.1%,...

Author(s) : Gundogdu, E.; Tanrıverdi, E.; Yildiz, H.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1247-1256 ref.34

17. Sterol and squalene as indicators of adulteration of milk fat with palm oil and its fractions.

Milk fat, one of the expensive fatty matters, might be sometimes adulterated with other edible fats, particularly palm oil or its fractions, which can be a major problem for the dairy industry, especially in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the adulteration of milk fat based on some...

Author(s) : Khorsandmanesh, S.; Gharachorloo, M.; Bahmaie, M.; Moghadda, A. Z.; Azizinezhad, R.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1257-1266 ref.26

18. Larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects of the jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) extracts on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

The importance of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), has dramatically risen mainly due to the overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides, which has resulted in increased selection for pesticide resistance, destruction of natural enemies, and pest resurgence. These issues accompanied by...

Author(s) : Karimzadeh, J.; Rabiei, A.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1279-1293 ref.67

19. Cold tolerance in olive leaves of three cultivars related to some physiological parameters during cold acclimation and de-acclimation stages.

This research studied changes in antioxidant enzymes activity, Total Soluble Proteins (TSPs), Malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline content in the leaves of three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars (Amphisis, Gorgan, and Manzanilla) at five different dates, and investigated their relationship with...

Author(s) : Saadati, S.; Baninasab, B.; Mobli, M.; Gholami, M.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1313-1326

20. Drought tolerance in cultivated and wild barley genotypes: the role of root system characteristics.

There are contrasting reports on the relationship between yield and drought tolerance of crops with root characteristics. This research aimed to study grain yield and rootrelated traits (at two depths) under optimal and drought stress conditions and assess the effect of root-related traits on grain ...

Author(s) : Barati, M.; Majidi, M. M.; Pirnajmedin, F.; Mirlohi, A.; Sarfaraz, D.; Osivand, A.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1359-1370 ref.33

21. Estimation of irrigation water demand function, analyzing its cross and symmetrical relations with other inputs (Qazvin Plain).

Water is the most important input used in agriculture. Due to the scarce water resources and dry and semi-arid climatic conditions of Iran, water demand management has special importance in the whole economy, including the agricultural sector, because this sector has the largest share in water...

Author(s) : Avazdahandeh, S.; Khalilian, S.; Vakilpoor, M. H.; Alamdarlo, H. N.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.1 pp.1-12 ref.23

22. Land use and agricultural support policies: evidence from Iran's irrigated wheat planting.

The self-sufficiency policy for wheat production in Iran has increased external costs for the country besides causing the destruction of water and land resources. Nevertheless, due to various political, economic, and socio-economic reasons, self-sufficiency in wheat production in Iran is a binding...

Author(s) : Alipour, A.; Mosavi, S. H.; Khalilian, S.; Mortazavi, S. A.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.1 pp.13-26 ref.47

23. Analyzing impacts of farmer field school on the economic, social, production, and knowledge status of greenhouse owners: evidence from Tehran Province and its surrounding counties.

The purpose of this study was to analyze effects of using Farmer Field School (FFS) on the economic, social, production, and knowledge status of greenhouse owners in Tehran Province and surrounding, Iran. The research method was a comparative causal study. The statistical population was composed of ...

Author(s) : Karimi, E.; Niknami, M.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.1 pp.27-41 ref.38

24. Climate change risk perception among agriculture students: the role of knowledge, environmental attitude, and belief in happening.

Climate change has arisen due to "enhanced greenhouse effect", as a result of human activities and lifestyle. Mitigation of greenhouse gases is dependent on climate change risk perception. Therefore, the present study aimed to provide a conceptual model to determine risk perception and explore...

Author(s) : Zobeidi, T.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Bakhshi, A.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.1 pp.43-55 ref.75

25. Designing an agricultural occupational health behavioral model.

Occupational injuries have several psychological, economic, social, and institutional consequences. Agriculture is a high-risk industry, but occupational injuries are mainly rooted in the behavior of farmers. The present study was conducted using the qualitative approach and the grounded theory...

Author(s) : Moradhaseli, S.; Colosio, C.; Farhadian, H.; Abbasi, E.; Ghofranipour, F.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.1 pp.57-66 ref.22


Economic valuation of ecosystem conservation using dichotomous choice approach (case study: Khabar National Park). The development of economic valuation techniques and their potential applications to environmental assessment have important role in environmental economics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the conservation value of the Khabr National Park in Iran and people's willingness to pay for...

Author(s) : Saleh, I.; Khosravi, M.; Boshrabadi, A. S.; Rafiee, H.; Shahnabati, N.; Saleh, H. R.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1165-1175 ref.34

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12. Analyzing Iranian farmers' behavioral intention towards acceptance of drip irrigation using extended technology acceptance model.

The present study aimed to analyze sugar beet farmers' intention towards the acceptance of drip irrigation based on an extended version of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The main objectives of this study were introduction of the existing acceptance behavior models, comparison of these theories...

Author(s) : Haji, L.; Valizadeh, N.; Rezaei-Moghaddam, K.; Hayati, D.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1177-1190 ref.34

13. Developing indicators for farmers' satisfaction with extension services in Iran utilizing Delphi technique.

The lack of accountability of government organizations to address the needs of stakeholders and the private sector and the provision of low-quality services to clients has increased dissatisfaction with government services. Therefore, providing quality services is essential to increase satisfaction ...

Author(s) : Zare, A.; Chizari, M.; Sadighi, H.; Choobchian, Sh.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1191-1204 ref.48

14. Understanding rural people's engagement in pro-environmental behaviors: an integrated conceptual framework.

Undoubtedly, investigation and recognition of individuals' environmental behaviors are key prerequisites to resolve environmental problems, but empirical theory-based research on this topic is limited, particularly in developing countries. Accordingly, a mixed model based on the Theory of Planned...

Author(s) : Safa, L.; Saghinsara, V. M.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1205-1217 ref.42

15. A novel approach to establish breed type and standards for an equine breed: Persian Kurdish horse.

Persian Kurdish Horse constitutes a group of horses traditionally bred and used by Kurdish People who have lived and occupied today's western provinces of Iran for several millennia. Although very well-known for their unique characteristics, standards of this socalled breed of Iranian native horses ...

Author(s) : Mashouf, N. Y.; Yeganeh, H. M.; Javaremi, A. N.; Maloufi, F.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1219-1233 ref.19

16. Antimicrobial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and its effect on microbiological properties of yoghurt.

In this study, the antimicrobial effect of Coriandrum sativum L. leaves against 30 different foodborne microorganisms, including 20 bacteria, 7 fungi and, 3 yeast species, and some microbiological properties of yoghurt produced with lyophilised Coriandrum sativum L. at three different level (0.1%,...

Author(s) : Gundogdu, E.; Tanrıverdi, E.; Yildiz, H.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1247-1256 ref.34

17. Sterol and squalene as indicators of adulteration of milk fat with palm oil and its fractions.

Milk fat, one of the expensive fatty matters, might be sometimes adulterated with other edible fats, particularly palm oil or its fractions, which can be a major problem for the dairy industry, especially in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the adulteration of milk fat based on some...

Author(s) : Khorsandmanesh, S.; Gharachorloo, M.; Bahmaie, M.; Moghadda, A. Z.; Azizinezhad, R.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1257-1266 ref.26

18. Larvicidal and oviposition deterrent effects of the jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) extracts on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

The importance of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), has dramatically risen mainly due to the overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides, which has resulted in increased selection for pesticide resistance, destruction of natural enemies, and pest resurgence. These issues accompanied by...

Author(s) : Karimzadeh, J.; Rabiei, A.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1279-1293 ref.67

19. Cold tolerance in olive leaves of three cultivars related to some physiological parameters during cold acclimation and de-acclimation stages.

This research studied changes in antioxidant enzymes activity, Total Soluble Proteins (TSPs), Malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline content in the leaves of three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars (Amphisis, Gorgan, and Manzanilla) at five different dates, and investigated their relationship with...

Author(s) : Saadati, S.; Baninasab, B.; Mobli, M.; Gholami, M.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1313-1326

20. Drought tolerance in cultivated and wild barley genotypes: the role of root system characteristics.

There are contrasting reports on the relationship between yield and drought tolerance of crops with root characteristics. This research aimed to study grain yield and rootrelated traits (at two depths) under optimal and drought stress conditions and assess the effect of root-related traits on grain ...

Author(s) : Barati, M.; Majidi, M. M.; Pirnajmedin, F.; Mirlohi, A.; Sarfaraz, D.; Osivand, A.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.5 pp.1359-1370 ref.33

21. Estimation of irrigation water demand function, analyzing its cross and symmetrical relations with other inputs (Qazvin Plain).

Water is the most important input used in agriculture. Due to the scarce water resources and dry and semi-arid climatic conditions of Iran, water demand management has special importance in the whole economy, including the agricultural sector, because this sector has the largest share in water...

Author(s) : Avazdahandeh, S.; Khalilian, S.; Vakilpoor, M. H.; Alamdarlo, H. N.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.1 pp.1-12 ref.23

22. Land use and agricultural support policies: evidence from Iran's irrigated wheat planting.

The self-sufficiency policy for wheat production in Iran has increased external costs for the country besides causing the destruction of water and land resources. Nevertheless, due to various political, economic, and socio-economic reasons, self-sufficiency in wheat production in Iran is a binding...

Author(s) : Alipour, A.; Mosavi, S. H.; Khalilian, S.; Mortazavi, S. A.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.1 pp.13-26 ref.47

23. Analyzing impacts of farmer field school on the economic, social, production, and knowledge status of greenhouse owners: evidence from Tehran Province and its surrounding counties.

The purpose of this study was to analyze effects of using Farmer Field School (FFS) on the economic, social, production, and knowledge status of greenhouse owners in Tehran Province and surrounding, Iran. The research method was a comparative causal study. The statistical population was composed of ...

Author(s) : Karimi, E.; Niknami, M.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.1 pp.27-41 ref.38

24. Climate change risk perception among agriculture students: the role of knowledge, environmental attitude, and belief in happening.

Climate change has arisen due to "enhanced greenhouse effect", as a result of human activities and lifestyle. Mitigation of greenhouse gases is dependent on climate change risk perception. Therefore, the present study aimed to provide a conceptual model to determine risk perception and explore...

Author(s) : Zobeidi, T.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Bakhshi, A.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.1 pp.43-55 ref.75

25. Designing an agricultural occupational health behavioral model.

Occupational injuries have several psychological, economic, social, and institutional consequences. Agriculture is a high-risk industry, but occupational injuries are mainly rooted in the behavior of farmers. The present study was conducted using the qualitative approach and the grounded theory...

Author(s) : Moradhaseli, S.; Colosio, C.; Farhadian, H.; Abbasi, E.; Ghofranipour, F.

Publisher : Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Journal article : Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2020 Vol.22 No.1 pp.57-66 ref.22