Search results: 321,704 results (approx.)

1. Gender differences in acute toxicity, toxicokinetic and tissue distribution of amphotericin B liposomes in rats.

Amphotericin B (AmB), an effective polyene drug with broad spectrum antifungal activity, is used for serious fungal infections. Liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) is a lipid dosage form, which has a significantly improved toxicity profile compared with conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate (DAmB)....

Author(s) : Wang Dong; Zhang Wei; Ju JieXi; Wang LuJia; Huang RuYu; Xu YanFang; Zhang HaiLin; Qi JinLong

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Toxicology Letters 2021 Vol.338 pp.78-84

2. Assessing antibiotic residues in piglet liver and kidney samples: how to manage the results obtained.

The use of antibiotics in livestock production has become a common practice. In the EU, the use of antibiotics as growth promoters is forbidden. However, the (mis)use of antibiotics may lead to antimicrobial resistance, which adversely affects humans, animals and the environment. Thus, the present...

Author(s) : Gamboa-Cruz, C.; Barros, S.; Pouca, A. S. V.; Barbosa, J.; Freitas, A.; Ramos, F.

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Food Control 2021 Vol.122

3. Cell membrane chromatography for the analysis of the interaction between chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine with ACE2 receptors.

The recent emergence of the novel pathogenic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is responsible for a worldwide pandemic. In sight of this, there has been growing interest in the use of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as potential treatments. In this study, we use angiotensin...

Author(s) : Fu Jia; Jia QianQian; Zhou HuaXin; Zhang LiYang; Wang SaiSai; Liang PeiDa; Lv YanNi; Han ShengLi

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Journal of Chromatography, B 2021 Vol.1162 ref.24

4. Antiviral activity of glycyrrhizic acid conjugates with amino acid esters against Zika virus.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a new pathogenic flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes Aedes spp. ZIKV infection is accompanied by serious neurological complications and is especially dangerous for pregnant women, in which it can lead to congenital malformations of the fetus and microcephaly in neonates....

Author(s) : Baltina, L. A.; Hour MannJen; Liu YaChi; Chang YoungSheng; Huang SuHua; Lai HsuehChou; Kondratenko, R. M.; Petrova, S. F.; Yunusov, M. S.; Lin ChengWen

Publisher : Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands

Journal article : Virus Research 2021 Vol.294

5. Protein unbound pharmacokinetics of ambroxol in the blood and brains of rats and the interaction of ambroxol with Polygala tenuifolia by multiple microdialysis.

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ambroxol elevates glucocerebrosidase (GCase) activity and reduces nigrostriatal alpha-synuclein burden to better ameliorate motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD). Polygala tenuifolia is a potential alternative botanical medicine for the treatment of many...

Author(s) : Yang ChaoNan; Peng WenYa; Lin LieChwen; Tsai TungHu

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2021 Vol.269

6. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial activity of propolis from Africanized honeybees and three different Meliponini species.

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Propolis extracts are widely used in traditional folk medicine and exhibit several properties such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial. However, these products have not been investigated in combination with medicines used in clinical practice. Aim of...

Author(s) : Surek, M.; Fachi, M. M.; Cobre, A. V.; Oliveira, F. F. de; Pontarolo, R.; Crisma, A. R.; Souza, W. M. de; Felipe, K. B.

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2021 Vol.269

7. Fate, residues and dietary risk assessment of the fungicides epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin in wheat in twelve different regions, China.

The fungicides epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin have been widely used to control wheat fusarium head blight. This study was designed to investigate the dissipation behaviors in different climate regions and provide data for the modification of maximum residue limits of the two fungicides. Wheat...

Author(s) : Zhao Zixi; Sun RunXia; Su Yue; Hu JiYe; Liu XiaoLu

Publisher : Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Journal article : Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2021 Vol.207 ref.50

8. Comparison between sustained effects of spray and injection thiamethoxam on apple aphids and non-target insects in apple orchard.

Spray application is considered to be the most common method of insecticide use in apple orchard, while trunk injection has often be used in labor-intensive areas. Here, a comparison of both methods in aphid control efficiency and non-target effects was conducted. We evaluated the effects of...

Author(s) : Kou HongRu; Sun YanChao; Dong ZhaoKe; Zhang ZhiYong

Publisher : Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Journal article : Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2021 Vol.207 ref.47

9. Plant extracts rich in polyphenols: antibacterial agents and natural preservatives for meat and meat products.

Plant extracts contain large amounts of bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols. Polyphenols inhibit the growth of microorganisms, especially bacteria. Their mechanism of action is still not fully understood but may be related to their chemical structure. They can cause morphological changes in...

Author(s) : Efenberger-Szmechtyk, M.; Nowak, A.; Czyzowska, A.

Publisher : Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, USA

Journal article : Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2021 Vol.61 No.1 pp.149-178

10. Emerging paradigms of viral diseases and paramount role of natural resources as antiviral agents.

In the current scenario, the increasing prevalence of diverse microbial infections as well as emergence and re-emergence of viral epidemics with high morbidity and mortality rates are major public health threat. Despite the persistent production of antiviral drugs and vaccines in the global market, ...

Author(s) : Sagaya Jansi, R.; Ameer Khusro; Agastian, P.; Ahmed Alfarhan; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Arasu, M. V.; Rajakrishnan Rajagopal; Barcelo, D.; Al-Tamimi, A.

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Science of the Total Environment 2021 Vol.759

11. Novel esterquat-based herbicidal ionic liquids incorporating MCPA and MCPP for simultaneous stimulation of maize growth and fighting cornflower.

Modern agricultural practices are often based on the use of mixtures of specific herbicides to achieve efficient crop protection. The major drawbacks of commercial herbicidal formulations include the necessity to incorporate toxic surfactants and high volatility of active substances. Transformation ...

Author(s) : Parus, A.; Homa, J.; Radonski, D.; Framski, G.; Wozniak-Karczewska, M.; Syguda, A.; Lawniczak, L.; Chrzanowski, L.

Publisher : Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Journal article : Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2021 Vol.208 ref.many

12. Effect of algicidal compound -acetylhistamine on physiological response and algal toxins in Heterosigma akashiwo.

The toxic alga Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) is known to form harmful algal blooms (HABs), which can have serious negative effects on the aquatic ecosystem and human life. Previous study has shown that -acetylhistamine (N-AcH), an algicidal compound secreted by algicidal bacteria Bacillus ...

Author(s) : Zhu QiuYin; Wu BiYu; Zhao Ling

Publisher : Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Journal article : Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2021 Vol.208 ref.many

13. Genital infection by Aerococcus viridans in a captive African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

Aerococcus viridans is an emerging pathogen for humans and livestock animals, mainly associated with genitourinary infections cases. Its occurrence in wild mammals has never been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the etiological agent associated with clinical a case of a genital...

Author(s) : Colombo, S. A.; Silva, B. A.; Gómez, S. Y. M.; Lima Santos, R. de; Tinoco, H. P.; Coelho, C. M.; Teixera, J. P.; Leal, C. A. G.

Publisher : Centro de Ciências Rurais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil

Journal article : Ciência Rural 2021 Vol.51 No.1 ref.27

Search results

Search results: 321,704 results (approx.)

1. Gender differences in acute toxicity, toxicokinetic and tissue distribution of amphotericin B liposomes in rats.

Amphotericin B (AmB), an effective polyene drug with broad spectrum antifungal activity, is used for serious fungal infections. Liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) is a lipid dosage form, which has a significantly improved toxicity profile compared with conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate (DAmB)....

Author(s) : Wang Dong; Zhang Wei; Ju JieXi; Wang LuJia; Huang RuYu; Xu YanFang; Zhang HaiLin; Qi JinLong

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Toxicology Letters 2021 Vol.338 pp.78-84

2. Assessing antibiotic residues in piglet liver and kidney samples: how to manage the results obtained.

The use of antibiotics in livestock production has become a common practice. In the EU, the use of antibiotics as growth promoters is forbidden. However, the (mis)use of antibiotics may lead to antimicrobial resistance, which adversely affects humans, animals and the environment. Thus, the present...

Author(s) : Gamboa-Cruz, C.; Barros, S.; Pouca, A. S. V.; Barbosa, J.; Freitas, A.; Ramos, F.

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Food Control 2021 Vol.122

3. Cell membrane chromatography for the analysis of the interaction between chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine with ACE2 receptors.

The recent emergence of the novel pathogenic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is responsible for a worldwide pandemic. In sight of this, there has been growing interest in the use of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as potential treatments. In this study, we use angiotensin...

Author(s) : Fu Jia; Jia QianQian; Zhou HuaXin; Zhang LiYang; Wang SaiSai; Liang PeiDa; Lv YanNi; Han ShengLi

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Journal of Chromatography, B 2021 Vol.1162 ref.24

4. Antiviral activity of glycyrrhizic acid conjugates with amino acid esters against Zika virus.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a new pathogenic flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes Aedes spp. ZIKV infection is accompanied by serious neurological complications and is especially dangerous for pregnant women, in which it can lead to congenital malformations of the fetus and microcephaly in neonates....

Author(s) : Baltina, L. A.; Hour MannJen; Liu YaChi; Chang YoungSheng; Huang SuHua; Lai HsuehChou; Kondratenko, R. M.; Petrova, S. F.; Yunusov, M. S.; Lin ChengWen

Publisher : Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands

Journal article : Virus Research 2021 Vol.294

5. Protein unbound pharmacokinetics of ambroxol in the blood and brains of rats and the interaction of ambroxol with Polygala tenuifolia by multiple microdialysis.

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ambroxol elevates glucocerebrosidase (GCase) activity and reduces nigrostriatal alpha-synuclein burden to better ameliorate motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD). Polygala tenuifolia is a potential alternative botanical medicine for the treatment of many...

Author(s) : Yang ChaoNan; Peng WenYa; Lin LieChwen; Tsai TungHu

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2021 Vol.269

6. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial activity of propolis from Africanized honeybees and three different Meliponini species.

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Propolis extracts are widely used in traditional folk medicine and exhibit several properties such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial. However, these products have not been investigated in combination with medicines used in clinical practice. Aim of...

Author(s) : Surek, M.; Fachi, M. M.; Cobre, A. V.; Oliveira, F. F. de; Pontarolo, R.; Crisma, A. R.; Souza, W. M. de; Felipe, K. B.

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2021 Vol.269

7. Fate, residues and dietary risk assessment of the fungicides epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin in wheat in twelve different regions, China.

The fungicides epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin have been widely used to control wheat fusarium head blight. This study was designed to investigate the dissipation behaviors in different climate regions and provide data for the modification of maximum residue limits of the two fungicides. Wheat...

Author(s) : Zhao Zixi; Sun RunXia; Su Yue; Hu JiYe; Liu XiaoLu

Publisher : Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Journal article : Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2021 Vol.207 ref.50

8. Comparison between sustained effects of spray and injection thiamethoxam on apple aphids and non-target insects in apple orchard.

Spray application is considered to be the most common method of insecticide use in apple orchard, while trunk injection has often be used in labor-intensive areas. Here, a comparison of both methods in aphid control efficiency and non-target effects was conducted. We evaluated the effects of...

Author(s) : Kou HongRu; Sun YanChao; Dong ZhaoKe; Zhang ZhiYong

Publisher : Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Journal article : Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2021 Vol.207 ref.47

9. Plant extracts rich in polyphenols: antibacterial agents and natural preservatives for meat and meat products.

Plant extracts contain large amounts of bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols. Polyphenols inhibit the growth of microorganisms, especially bacteria. Their mechanism of action is still not fully understood but may be related to their chemical structure. They can cause morphological changes in...

Author(s) : Efenberger-Szmechtyk, M.; Nowak, A.; Czyzowska, A.

Publisher : Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, USA

Journal article : Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2021 Vol.61 No.1 pp.149-178

10. Emerging paradigms of viral diseases and paramount role of natural resources as antiviral agents.

In the current scenario, the increasing prevalence of diverse microbial infections as well as emergence and re-emergence of viral epidemics with high morbidity and mortality rates are major public health threat. Despite the persistent production of antiviral drugs and vaccines in the global market, ...

Author(s) : Sagaya Jansi, R.; Ameer Khusro; Agastian, P.; Ahmed Alfarhan; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Arasu, M. V.; Rajakrishnan Rajagopal; Barcelo, D.; Al-Tamimi, A.

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Science of the Total Environment 2021 Vol.759

11. Novel esterquat-based herbicidal ionic liquids incorporating MCPA and MCPP for simultaneous stimulation of maize growth and fighting cornflower.

Modern agricultural practices are often based on the use of mixtures of specific herbicides to achieve efficient crop protection. The major drawbacks of commercial herbicidal formulations include the necessity to incorporate toxic surfactants and high volatility of active substances. Transformation ...

Author(s) : Parus, A.; Homa, J.; Radonski, D.; Framski, G.; Wozniak-Karczewska, M.; Syguda, A.; Lawniczak, L.; Chrzanowski, L.

Publisher : Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Journal article : Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2021 Vol.208 ref.many

12. Effect of algicidal compound -acetylhistamine on physiological response and algal toxins in Heterosigma akashiwo.

The toxic alga Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) is known to form harmful algal blooms (HABs), which can have serious negative effects on the aquatic ecosystem and human life. Previous study has shown that -acetylhistamine (N-AcH), an algicidal compound secreted by algicidal bacteria Bacillus ...

Author(s) : Zhu QiuYin; Wu BiYu; Zhao Ling

Publisher : Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Journal article : Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2021 Vol.208 ref.many

13. Genital infection by Aerococcus viridans in a captive African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

Aerococcus viridans is an emerging pathogen for humans and livestock animals, mainly associated with genitourinary infections cases. Its occurrence in wild mammals has never been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the etiological agent associated with clinical a case of a genital...

Author(s) : Colombo, S. A.; Silva, B. A.; Gómez, S. Y. M.; Lima Santos, R. de; Tinoco, H. P.; Coelho, C. M.; Teixera, J. P.; Leal, C. A. G.

Publisher : Centro de Ciências Rurais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil

Journal article : Ciência Rural 2021 Vol.51 No.1 ref.27

14. The inhibitory effect of human beta-defensin-3 on Candida glabrata isolated from patients with candidiasis.

Candida glabrata is a common non-albicans Candida species found in patients with candidiasis and it sometimes develops antifungal resistance. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide of immune system active against various types of microbes including Candida spp. This study...

Author(s) : Inthanachai, T.; Thammahong, A.; Edwards, S. W.; Virakul, S.; Kiatsurayanon, C.; Chiewchengchol, D.

Publisher : Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, USA

Journal article : Immunological Investigations - A Journal of Molecular and Cellular Immunology 2021 Vol.50 No.1 pp.80-91 ref.37

15. Time and temperature requirements for heat inactivation of pathogens to be applied to swine transport trailers.

Objective: Biosecurity in swine transport trailers is of concern for spreading pathogens between premises, and as such, they require extensive cleaning and disinfection between loads. Our goal in this study was to find the optimal time and temperature required to heat inactivate swine pathogens of...

Author(s) : Kessel, J. van; Strom, S.; Deason, H.; Moorlehem, E. van; Berube, N.; Hauta, S.; Fernando, C.; Hill, J.; Fonstad, T.; Pag, P.; Gerdts, V.

Publisher : American Association of Swine Veterinarians, Perry, USA

Journal article : Journal of Swine Health and Production 2021 Vol.29 No.1 pp.19-28 ref.36

16. Antimicrobial activity of peptides extracted from camels' blood neutrophils against some pathogenic bacteria.

The aim of the current research was to isolate and purify antimicrobial cationic peptides (Amps) taken from camel blood and to study its antibacterial activity against some multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis. The results showed the possibility of...

Author(s) : Mahmood, M. A.; Essa, M. A.

Publisher : College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq

Journal article : Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences 2021 Vol.35 No.1 pp.33-37 ref.26

17. Aerodigestive adverse effects during intravenous pentamidine infusion for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis.

Aerodigestive adverse effects (AD-AE) during intravenous pentamidine (IV-P) infusion for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis are uncommon in retrospective chart review studies. We conducted a survey in patients on IV-P, which included 31 specific questions. Twenty-five patients were...

Author(s) : Savaşan, S.; George, A.; Sokolowski, C.; McGraw, B. J.; Rademacher, H.

Publisher : Wiley, Hoboken, USA

Journal article : Pediatric Blood & Cancer 2021 Vol.68 No.1

18. Antibiofilm peptides as a promising strategy: comparative research.

Biofilms lead to approximately 65% of infections, and these infections are hard to treat. Thus, it is crucial to identify effective antibiofilm agents with low cytotoxicity. Peptides with antibiofilm activity have been regarded as promising solutions, and peptides with MBICs (minimal biofilm...

Author(s) : Li Jing; Chen DongRu; Lin HuanCai

Publisher : Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany

Journal article : Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2021 Vol.105 No.4 pp.1647-1656 ref.30

19. Persistence of Veronaea botryosa in marine and freshwater microcosms and susceptibility evaluation to three disinfectants.

Veronaea botryosa is a dematiaceous fungus and the causative agent of systemic mycosis known as "fluid belly', one of the most important emergent diseases in sturgeon aquaculture. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease requires knowledge of environmental conditions that promote...

Author(s) : Yazdi, Z.; Soto, E.

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Aquaculture 2021 Vol.530 ref.many

20. Andrographolide attenuates inflammatory response induced by LPS via activating Nrf2 signaling pathway in bovine endometrial epithelial cells.

Endometritis is one of the main causes of bovine infertility, which causes serious economic losses to the industry. The endometrium is the first line of defense against invading microbial pathogens in the uterus. Andrographolide is the primary active component of A. paniculate, and has been shown...

Author(s) : Fu KaiQiang; Chen Hao; Wang ZeZhi; Cao RongFeng

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Research in Veterinary Science 2021 Vol.134 pp.36-41

21. Effects of parenteral administration of tylosin and ivermectin on abomasal emptying rate in healthy suckling lambs by use of nuclear scintigraphy.

Abomasal hypomotility is one of the important causes of neonatal mortality in small ruminants. Various pharmaceutical agents have been studied to address this problem in large ruminants. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parenteral administration of tylosin and ivermectin on...

Author(s) : Afsharfarnia, S.; Mohseni, M.; Fartashvand, M.; Assadnassab, G.; Mahmoudian, B.

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Research in Veterinary Science 2021 Vol.134 pp.181-185

22. Unusual case of polyarthritis and hepatorenal syndrome associated with Leptospira interrogans infection in a dog: a case report.

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetal bacterial of the genus Leptospira affecting virtually all mammals. The infection has a broad range of effects, from mild clinical manifestation to multiple organ failure, and ultimately death. A 5-months-old male unvaccinated dog was...

Author(s) : Paz, L. N.; Dias, C. S.; Carvalho, V. M. P. de; Muramoto, C.; Estrela-Lima, A.; Pinna, M. H.

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Research in Veterinary Science 2021 Vol.134 pp.186-190

23. Infection of WSSV shows potential promise of a novel antiviral amino-nitrophenyl medicine for application in culture of shrimp seedling.

Due to no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained outbreak and spread of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the virus results in a serious economic losses in shrimp industry. Here, a novel amino-nitrophenyl coumarin derivative 2-amino-4-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-oxo-4H, 5H-pyrano[3,2-...

Author(s) : Liu Lei; Shan LiPeng; Yan MaoCang; Liu GuangLu; Chen Jiong

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Aquaculture 2021 Vol.534

24. Synergistic activity of bile salts and their derivatives in combination with conventional antimicrobial agents against Acinetobacter baumannii.

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Bile traditionally was used in wound healing, having erodent, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Acinetobacter baumannii is a frequent etiological agent of wound infections, exhibiting high level of resistance to conventional antibiotics. Aim of the study: To...

Author(s) : Aleksic Sabo, V.; Škoric, D.; Jovanovic-Šanta, S.; Nikolic, I.; János, C.; Kneževic, P.

Publisher : Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, UK

Journal article : Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2021 Vol.264 ref.35

25. Azole derivatives with naphthalene showing potent antifungal effects against planktonic and biofilm forms of Candida spp.: an in vitro and in silico study.

Candida infections pose a serious public health threat due to increasing drug resistance. Azoles are first-line antifungal drugs for fungal infections. In this study, we tested an in-house azole collection incorporating naphthalene ring to find hits against planktonic and biofilm forms of resistant ...

Author(s) : Sari, S.; Koçak, E.; Kart, D.; Özdemir, Z.; Acar, M. F.; Sayoglu, B.; Karakurt, A.; Dalkara, S.

Publisher : Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, Switzerland

Journal article : International Microbiology 2021 Vol.24 No.1 pp.93-102 ref.47